Swachh Bharat Mission Urban 2.0

Swachh Smart Toilets

Hygiene and sanitation are undoubtedly crucial aspects of modern urban infrastructure and ease-of-living. One of the key focus areas under sanitation is the availability and maintenance of toilets. Swachh Bharat Mission Urban brought a significant transformation in urban toilet infrastructure. Following Prime Minister Narendra Modi's call for a clean India, the issue of open defecation was addressed, and the construction and use of toilets became a top priority. As a result, cities were declared ODF, ODF+, and ODF++ under the Mission. Previously, the challenge was the lack of public infrastructure, basic amenities, and awareness among citizens. The objective was to provide toilets to all individuals, regardless of gender, class, caste, or community, and to raise awareness about their importance. The initiatives undertaken by the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs (MoHUA) under SBM Urban 2.0 proved to be a game-changer, as they mobilized widespread citizen participation and made conscious efforts to bring about the desired change in the overall sanitation landscape of urban India.


Campaigns like Toilets 2.0 focused on visible cleanliness and overall maintenance of toilets. The objective of the campaign was to change the way Indian masses have thought of and have gone about using toilets in urban India, employing innovative methods. The campaign called for the government, administration, Urban Local Bodies, general public and private players to act in unison in order to reach the common goal of Swachh Toilets. In the recently concluded Ek Tareekh Ek Ghanta Ek Saath mega cleanliness drive, citizens, urban local bodies, central ministries, lead organizations joined hands to not just clean various rural and urban spaces but also CT/PTs. Public toilets were cleaned on highways, beaches, Railway stations, cinemas, residential localities etc.


The progress made in terms of toilet infrastructure in urban India has been significant. Citizens and urban local bodies have been making great efforts in this direction to use, clean and maintain community and public toilets. Chandigarh is going above and beyond leaving no stone unturned in enhancing public convenience. From fixing inverters and installing solar panels to completing minor repair works, they're truly dedicated to transforming the city's toilets into top-notch facilities. With the evolution of urban architecture, the demand for improved sanitation facilities becomes increasingly crucial, particularly for women's active involvement in the public domain. As urban landscapes transform, it becomes imperative to address the sanitation requirements that arise alongside these changes. This is particularly significant for women, as access to proper sanitation facilities empowers them to actively engage in public spaces and contribute to the overall development of the community. Ahmedabad has demonstrated its dedication to implementing high standards of hygiene and cleanliness by using state-of-the-art Automated Public Toilets, marking a remarkable transformation in this field. These facilities showcase the city's commitment to utilizing advanced technology.

Smart e-Toilets are the need of the hour and various urban public spaces are opting for them. Thiruvananthapuram Zoo Smart She toilet is a much-needed move for the convenience of scores of families who flock to the menagerie on a daily basis. The unmanned toilet stands out due to its advanced automated pre-flushing and flushing system, as well as its modular features such as a sanitary napkin vending machine and napkin incinerator. Constructed with prefabricated steel, this toilet offers various amenities including a chair, fan, mirror, and even baby feeding and diaper changing stations for the convenience of mothers. Accessing the facility is as easy as inserting a coin.



The "TI" toilets were conceptualized by a collaboration between Pune Municipal Corporation, 3S, and Indus to address the issues of unhygienic public washrooms for women and the unnecessary addition of old buses to landfills when they could still be utilized for a longer period. The lifespan of old public buses was extended by approximately 10 years through the removal of corroded and damaged parts and a complete refurbishment. These buses were equipped with highly sanitary and hygienic toilets for women, featuring a digital feedback panel, sanitary napkin vending machines and disposal bins, diaper changing stations, and essential toiletries. A dedicated attendant is present at all times to maintain the cleanliness of this unique facility.

Nagpur has smart e-toilets of pink colour for ladies and blue colour for gents. The toilet has facilities of automatic flushing, disinfected by EV rays, operated by any denomination coin and are clean and hygienic. AI-based smart toilets are operational at Malatipatpur bus-stand in Puri. It’s claimed to be the first such hi-tech facility in the Eastern India. Among other features, the UV lights on toilet pans ensure virus or bacteria free toilet. It is a pay-to-use facility.


Majority of community engagement in operation and management of CT/PTs comes through social entrepreneurship models or PPP Models. Many cities have witnessed an initiative that involves private entrepreneurs via Build, Operate, and Transfer contracts. Under Build, Operate, and Transfer contracts, ownership of the premises transfers to the municipality when the lease period expires, typically after five or seven years. In Pimpri Chinchwad, Maharashtra, a total of 26 aspirational toilets have been built across the city through a public-private partnership. These smart toilets are equipped with state-of-the-art facilities and are operated electronically. Similarly, in Hyderabad, there are Loocafes that also offer modern amenities and facilities. The main objective behind these initiatives is to provide convenience and comfort to individuals who are constantly on the go, by offering them luxury public toilets along with high-end dining options. As we progress towards the vision of Garbage Free Cities, the narrative of clean and well-maintained toilets in the modern era persists. The journey towards Swachh Toilets signifies our commitment to ensuring hygienic and sanitary facilities for all.

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